Modern workforces are far more diverse than those of the mid-1900s. The workplaces of today make efforts to be more inclusive and offer equal opportunities regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, race, or any other bias. While businesses still have a long way to go, significantly more women are part of the American total workforce today, outgrowing the conventional homemaker role. Women are involved in all levels of business, from entry-level roles to mid-level management to C-suite.
This is a step in the right direction. Regulations that prevent workplace harassment and abuse reflect the diminishing tolerance for unsafe workplaces. However, offering a female worker a safe, secure, and motivating workplace involves more than simply curbing harassment.
Knowing that they will have extended maternity leave and still have a workplace to return to without threat to their performance appraisals after the ordeal of pregnancy, childbirth, and recovery can often be a very strong sense of security. That is why the United States labor laws have evolved to offer protection for maternity leaves and childcare that are fundamentally exclusive to women.
Federal Maternity Leave Laws and Regulations
Paid leave, including maternity leaves, is regulated by labor legislation in the United States. In 1993, the Family and Medical Leave Act or FMLA specifically included protection for up to 12 weeks of unpaid leaves for new mothers. This doesn’t just include natural births. A newly adopted child still qualifies you for maternity leaves, since the child still requires care and attention. The FMLA however does not directly call for paid maternity leaves.
It does require all companies with 50 or more workers to offer 12 weeks of federal maternity leave. This is usually an unpaid leave offered annually to qualifying workers. The FMLA also places strict penalties on employers with over 50 employees if they fail to comply with the necessary requirements.
However, this still leaves a vast segment of the American workforce working for smaller firms (less than 50 workers) without maternity leave protection. The FMLA may not apply as a rule to army maternity leaves. Instead, the Military Parental Leave Program.
Maternity Leave Laws Across American States
Of course, federal regulations are in effect across all US territories, but states also have the right to modify and build on federal legislation. Many have also expanded the laws to cover smaller firms. That said, there is still no formative legislation that directs employers to offer paid maternity or paternity leaves. In fact, the United States is one of the only countries in the world that still lacks formal legislation guaranteeing paid maternity leave protection to workers.
The World Health Organization defines that the minimum length of average maternity leaves should be at least around 16 weeks. US legislation, however, has been slow in ensuring leave protection for new mothers in the American workforce. It offers a cutoff of 12 weeks, and employers aren’t required by law to offer paid leaves for maternity, to say nothing of paternity leaves for men. Federal regulations aside, the rules for protected maternity leaves by state can have varying effects, as discussed below:
Maternity Leave California
California has one of the best maternity leave regulations in the country. Under the FMLA guidelines stipulating 12 weeks of leave, the state offers every pregnant worker disability insurance for up to four weeks before the expected delivery date. This is because, at that stage, the pregnancy can inhibit the employee’s performance, while workplace stress and conditions may pose a threat to both the worker and their child.
The state also offers up to six weeks of disability insurance benefits after birth if you had a normal delivery. For a C-section, it is understood that the recovery time can be longer. Therefore, if a worker gave birth via C-section, they are eligible for up to eight weeks of disability insurance benefits after the birth.
NJ Maternity Leave
The state of New Jersey does not require an employer to offer paid maternity leave. However, the state’s own parental leave laws do make it mandatory for employers to offer a 12-week leave period for maternity. It also prohibits employers from terminating or removing the employee before, during, or immediately after their maternity leaves. The state directs employers to offer 12-week leaves to employees after every 24 months or two years.
Maternity Leave in NY
New York state maternity leave laws recently saw an upgrade after the COVID-19 pandemic. The FMLA guidelines have received a lot of focus, resulting in the state introducing one of the best maternity leave structures in the country. The state includes maternity leaves under the larger FMLA umbrella.
However, instead of unpaid leaves, New York’s Paid FMLA laws offer 12 weeks of paid family leaves to both men and women. The state also mandates workers on paid family leaves will receive up to 67% of their weekly wages. However, paid FMLA leaves like maternity leave in NYC and other parts of the state come with an upper cap of 67% of the prevailing Statewide Weekly Wage.
Maternity Leaves Texas
The state of Texas has a very straightforward approach to unpaid maternity leaves. The state FMLA rules allow workers up to 12 weeks of total unpaid leave. Workers may use these leaves for disability as a result of pregnancy as well as for parental needs. For example, if a worker takes two weeks of unpaid FMLA before their due date, they will be left with 10 weeks of unpaid FMLA after the date of delivery.
Massachusetts Maternity Leave
Massachusetts extends the protection offered for maternity leaves under the FMLA Act to much smaller firms. The idea is to include as many members of the state’s workforce currently under employment within the protection offered by FMLA.
Massachusetts state labor laws require all employers with six or more workers to offer up to eight weeks of unpaid FMLA for birth or adoption placement. Both male and female workers are entitled to these leaves. The child adoption placement covers children under 18 or, in case of a mental or physical disability, under the age of 23.
Maternity Leave Florida
Florida currently does not have structured and formalized legislation dealing with parental or maternity leaves. However, employees may still be able to take advantage of the leaves granted under the federal FMLA Act. These will usually be unpaid leaves of up to 12 weeks as described in the Act. However, this Act remains binding only on employers with over 50 people or less.
Washington State Maternity Leave
Washington State offers the same policy for maternity and parental leaves as the FMLA dictates. However, the state also has a set of disability laws that recognize pregnancy as a temporary but valid disability that interferes with work. Therefore, workers can also seek disability leaves without any ramifications. At the same time, the state requires every firm with eight or more employees to offer disability leaves.
Maternity Leave Illinois
The state of Illinois follows the federal FMLA guidelines. It offers up to four months of unpaid time off to pregnant workers within the last few months of the pregnancy. In other words, the policy covers a timeline from before birth to post-birth. However, it also has a few additional requirements for an employee to successfully claim maternity leaves from an employer in Illinois under the FMLA.
For example, the worker must have been a permanent employee of the company for at least a 4-month period. At the same time, workers are only entitled to FMLA-protected unpaid maternity or parental leaves if the employer meets the threshold for 50 workers or more.
Why Employers Should Offer Better Maternity Leave Policies?
The room for expansion in leave policies poses an interesting opportunity for many employers to increase the depth and quality of candidates in their talent pipeline. An employer is much more than just the premises or workspace it offers. The most desirable employers are the ones that have a strong employer brand. This is what attracts the best quality of candidates available to them, and allows them to continue growing based on the strength of the talent they hire.
An employer’s desirability or brand has several components. But as far as candidates are concerned, compensation and benefits plans aren’t the only determining factors. An employer’s stance and policies concerning paid leaves for maternity or parental needs is a good example.
A mortgage staffing agency will be able to pitch you as a much better employer if you offer better leave policies than your competition. As a result, you get the pick of the best candidates lining up thanks to your leave-friendly policies.
FAQs Relating to Maternity (and Paternal) Leaves in The United States
Below follow a list of the most frequent queries that recruiters see concerning unpaid and paid leave policies. Employee benefits aside, an employer with a good paid leave policy, especially concerning maternity and parental leaves, is a very desirable place to work for most individuals.
Employers should bear in mind that various federal and state FMLA or disability laws set only the minimum threshold. Employers usually remain free to set their own policies in line with their talent acquisition strategies, provided that they don’t contravene or go against prevailing federal or state legislation.
Does short-term disability cover maternity leave?
Many states classify pregnancy as a short-term or temporary disability, which can impede a worker’s ability to perform at work. The recovery period after natural birth or a C-section is also usually covered under the scope of disability in these states.
If you’re in a state that does classify pregnancy as a valid disability, you may be able to claim certain phases of pregnancy and birth as disability leaves, as well as claim Disability Insurance (DI) for that period.
How long is maternity leave?
The WHO recommends a minimum of 16 weeks of maternity leave before a worker can be expected to perform reasonably well at work. The United States typically offers up to 12 weeks of maternity leave as stipulated by the FMLA.
Is maternity leave paid?
As far as federal laws and most state laws go, the United States does not require employers to offer the entire 12 weeks of maternity leave as paid time off. However, certain states do require employers to offer paid maternity leave. The weekly payment may be a reduced version of the worker’s actual weekly wage.
How long is maternity leave in California?
12 weeks. But you can also claim up to 4 weeks under Disability Insurance.
How does maternity leave work?
Depending on the state you’re in, you usually have access to 12 weeks of unpaid leave as mandated by the FMLA. However, for most of the country, only employers with 50 or more employees are required to offer these leaves. This leaves a significant portion of the workplace without paid maternity leaves or job security.
When does maternity leave start?
When you take your maternity leave is up to you. You can choose to take them as early as 11 weeks before your due date. But you can also take them immediately after you give birth.
How long is maternity leave in Texas?
12 weeks as stipulated by the FMLA.
Do men get maternity leave?
Generally, men aren’t afforded the same maternity leave as women. However, certain states do allow men to claim paternity leaves to help a spouse during and after pregnancy. Men may also be entitled to parental leaves under FMLA subject to age restrictions.
How to apply for maternity leave?
Your maternity leave application will usually depend on your employer’s leave policies as well as on applicable laws like the FMLA.
How much do you get paid on maternity leave?
The federal government does not make it mandatory for employers to offer paid maternity leaves. However, certain states do require it, and your employer may choose to offer paid leaves as well. The payment for a week would usually be a bit lower than your regular weekly wage.
How long is paid maternity leave?
Paid maternity leave usually cannot go beyond 12 weeks.